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2009年考研英语7选5填空式阅读真题(附解析)

来源:网友上传  2012-4-25 22:48:54   【一起学:终身教育引导者

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  2008年考研英语7选5填空式阅读真题(附解析)

  2009年考研英语7选5(填空式阅读)真题解析

  Directions:

  Directions: In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions (41-45), choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Coinciding with the groundbreaking theory of biological evolution proposed by British naturalist Charles Darwin in the 1860s, British social philosopher Herbert Spencer put forward his own theory of biological and cultural evolution. Spencer argued that all worldly phenomena, including human societies, changed over time, advancing toward perfection. 41 .

  American social scientist Lewis Henry Morgan introduced another theory of cultural evolution in the late 1800s. Morgan, along with Taylor, was one of the founders of modern anthropology. In his work, he attempted to show how all aspects of culture changed together in the evolution of societies. 42 .

  In the early 1900s in North America, Germanborn American anthropologist Franz Boas developed a new theory of culture known as historical particularism. Historical particularism, which emphasized the uniqueness of all cultures, gave new direction to anthropology. 43 .

  Boas felt that the culture of any society must be understood as the result of a unique history and not as one of many cultures belonging to a broader evolutionary stage or type of culture. 44 .

  Historical particularism became a dominant approach to the study of culture in American anthropology, largely through the influence of many students of Boas. But a number of anthropologists in the early 1900s also rejected the particularist theory of culture in favor of diffusionism. Some attributed virtually every important cultural achievement to the inventions of a few, especially gifted peoples that, according to diffusionists, then spread to other cultures. 45 .

  Also in the early 1900s, French sociologist Emile Durkheim developed a theory of culture that would greatly influence anthropology. Durkheim proposed that religious beliefs functioned to reinforce social solidarity. An interest in the relationship between the function of society and culture-known as functionalism-became a major theme in European, and especially British, anthropology.

  [A] Other anthropologists believed that cultural innovations, such as inventions, had a single origin and passed from society to society. This theory was known as diffusionism.

  [B] In order to study particular cultures as completely as possible, Boas became skilled in linguistics, the study of languages, and in physical anthropology, the study of human biology and anatomy.

  [C] He argued that human evolution was characterized by a struggle he called the "survival of the fittest," in which weaker races and societies must eventually be replaced by stronger, more advanced races and societies.

  [D] They also focused on important rituals that appeared to preserve a people's social structure, such as initiation ceremonies that formally signify children's entrance into adulthood.

  [E] Thus, in his view, diverse aspects of culture, such as the structure of families, forms of marriage, categories of kinship, ownership of property, forms of government, technology, and systems of food production, all changed as societies evolved.

  [F]Supporters of the theory viewed as a collection of integrated parts that work together to keep a society functioning.

  [G] For example, British anthropologists Grafton Elliot Smith and W. J. Perry incorrectly suggested, on the basis of inadequate information, that farming, pottery making, and metallurgy all originated in ancient Egypt and diffused throughout the world. In fact, all of these cultural developments occurred separately at different times in many parts of the world.

  答案详解

  41.【解析】[C]本题可以使用词汇复现法。试题位于第一段的末尾,因此要了解试题前以及试题后即第二段的语义重点。文章的第一句话Coinciding with the groundbreaking theory of biological evolution proposed by British naturalist Charles Darwin in the 1860s, British social philosopher Herbert Spencer put forward his own theory of biological and cultural evolution是本段的主题句,后面的一句话是对它的补充和说明。从本段的语义以及使用的词汇来看,本段论述的内容主要集中在evolution(进化)上。从第二段的起始句American social scientist Lewis Henry Morgan introduced another theory of cultural evolution in the late 1800s来看,文章仍然在谈论cultural evolution的问题,因此从文章叙述的一致性出发,要填入的内容,也应当围绕cultural revolution进行,同时是对上文的补充和说明。对比选项,只有选项[C]所论述的内容是cultural revolution,词汇复现,同时在语义上是对前者的补充和说明,因此是正确答案。

  42.【解析】[E]本题可以使用词汇同现法,同时分析前后文的语义关系。试题位于第二段的结尾,要了解前后文的语义关系。从前文来看,本段要说明的主题是he attempted to show how all aspects of culture changed together in the evolution of societies,本句话前面的信息都是背景信息,只有这一句话和文章的主题有关,因此是这一段要说明的重点,通过分析这句话的语义可知,本句话要说明的重点信息是all aspects of culture change(文化的各个方面会发生变化)。从试题后面段落的起始句In the early 1900s in North America, Germanborn American anthropologist Franz Boas developed a new theory来看,和上一段之间没有联系,而是提出了另外一个问题。通过试题前后的语义分析可知,要填入的句子在语义上要和试题前面的all aspects of culture changed这个信息保持一致性。对比选项可知,选项[E]中出现了diverse aspects of culture这样的信息,和试题前面的all aspects of culture形成了词汇同现关系,因此初步判断是正确答案。再进一步从语义上判断,选项[E]的主谓宾结构是all aspects of culture changed as societies evolved和试题前面的句子all aspects of culture changed表达了相同的内容,对前面的语义形成了补充和说明。

  43.【解析】[A]从试题前文的语义看,前文中的句子Historical particularism, which emphasized the uniqueness of all cultures, gave new direction to anthropology表达的核心是文化的uniqueness(独特性)。从试题后面段落的第一句话Boas felt that the culture of any society must be understood as the result of a unique history and not as one of many cultures belonging to a broader evolutionary stage or type of culture来看,这句话包含了两个方面的内容,句子的前半部分the culture of any society must be understood as the result of a unique history(文化是特定历史的产物)和试题前面的句子表达语义是相同的,但是这句话的后半部分(the culture of any society must be understood)not as one of many cultures belonging to a broader evolutionary stage or type of culture(文化不应当理解成某一特定发展阶段的文化或某种文化的产物)表达了与其不同的内容,因此,从前后文的语义逻辑关系分析,这就是要填入的试题内容。比较选项可以发现,选项[A] Other anthropologists believed that cultural innovations, such as inventions, had a single origin and passed from society to society. This theory was known as diffusionism中的cultural innovations had a single origin(文化革新只有一个来源)表达了我们前面分析出来的要填入的内容,因此是正确答案。

  44.【解析】[B]通过第43题的分析可知,44题前面的句子表达了两个方面的内容,从44题后面的段落来看,文章对这两个段落分别进行了详细的介绍。因此要填入的内容应当和前面句子的关系非常密切,但是前面的内容有两个,一个是the culture of any society must be understood as the result of a unique history(文化是特定历史的产物),另一个是(the culture of any society must be understood)not as one of many cultures belonging to a broader evolutionary stage or type of culture(文化不应当理解成某一特定发展阶段的文化或某种文化的产物),到底和哪一种观点衔接可以通过浏览剩下的四个选项解决。选项[D]和选项[G]可以直接排出。最主要的干扰项是[F] Supporters of the theory viewed as a collection of integrated parts that work together to keep a society functioning,因为大家很可能从形式上误认为the theory指代的前文中的(the culture of any society must be understood)not as one of many cultures belonging to a broader evolutionary stage or type of culture这种观点,但从语义上来看,两者是不同的,因此是错误选项。选项[B]是正确答案,它从文化的特殊性方面进行了论述,和前一句话的前半段是相符合的。

  45.【解析】[G]试题前面的句子讨论的重点是diffusionism和diffusionists,试题后面的段落的第一句话是Also in the early 1900s, French sociologist Emile Durkheim developed a theory of culture that…,提出了一个新的关于文化的理论,和前面的段落在语义上没有联系,因此可以判断,要填入的内容一定是对前面内容的延续,一定和diffusionism或者diffusionists有关。对比剩余的选项可以发现,选项[G]是对前面句子在内容上的例证,叙述的主要内容是文化的diffused,因此可以通过词汇复现找到正确答案。

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