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来源:网友上传  2012-4-25 22:48:54   【一起学:终身教育引导者

41、The“shareholders”as such had no knowledge of the lives,thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares,and his influenc e on the relations of capital and labour was not good。

42、When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion,it is advisable to f ind out what its advocates are aiming at, for,however farfetched and unreasonabl e their principles may seem today,it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal.

43、Not only are the movements of the earth of great importance to you,but wha t the earth is made of,that is,its composition,also governs what you do and provi des everything which you have.

44、Industrial pollution comes from waste products of the manufacturing and se r vice industries,and these products are difficult,or at least expensive,to dispos e of,while agricultural pollution results from the accumulation of toxic chemica ls derived from pesticides and fertilizers.

45、A particularly important application of the computer in simplified form is as a component in the control equipment of manufacturing processes- as the ner ve centre which accumulates and analyses data recording the operating conditions and performances of the plant,and sends out instructions,when appropriate,for t heir modification。

46、The use of electrical energy has developed rapidly because,in addition to b ecoming prevailing means of transmitting power initially generated by steam,wate r,or internal combustion engine,and replacing domestic factors such as candles, lamps and handlabor,it has given rise to many new ways all its own of rendering services.

47、As a result the chemical industry has become the central industry of mode rn civilization,tending,because of its control over materials,to spread into,and u ltimately incorporate,older industries,such as mining,smelting and building,and even through its concern with fertilizers and food processing,agriculture itself .

48、At the present time,physics has progressed farther in this direction than a ny other science,and,in seeking to give a brief account of the present state of the science of physics,it must be our aim,not only to state the most important o bserved facts but also to show the relations and interdependence of these facts.

49、Most of the drugs in current use were discovered by accident or by trial a nd error,and the cases in which a clear connection has been found between a drug 's action in the body and its chemical and physical properties are few

50、Fortunately,however,the increasing power and organization of the trade uni ons,at least in all skilled trades,enabled the workmen to meet on equal terms t he managers of the companies who employed them.

51、A very important world problem-in fact,I am inc lined to say it is the most important of all the great world problems which face us at the present time -is the rapidly increasing pressure of population on land and on land resources?

52、Yet wide reading is becoming increasingly important,for it is very frequen t ly in the fields where several branches of science overlap that the most excitin g results are obtained?
53、This development-and its strong implications for us politics and econo my in years ahead?has enthroned the South as America's most densel y pop ulated region for the first time in the history of the nation's head co unting.

54、The idea of writing this book was a result of frequent enquiries about the possibility of publishing in the English language a book on optics written in th e German language by one of us more than twenty?five years ago

55、To understand the width and depth to which science can be applied to the m a terial and spiritual problems that confront individuals and nations requires an understanding of what science really is

56、Our need for water is constantly increasing? There is an automatic increa se due to population growth,while the overall improvement of living standards,the f ight against hunger through the irrigation of more land for food growing,and the creation and expansion of new industries,all foretell the need for even greater water supplies through out the world

57、This property that air has of taking up a large amount of water when coole d is the cause of our cloud and rain

58、We are utilizing both solar and geothermal energy in limited amounts in a v ariety of installations but the possibility for large scale implementation of th ese sources to alleviate our power and attendant pollution problems seems very r emote indeed

59、But the subject is only a few years old and with the improvements in elect r onic techniques which may confidently be expected,and the rapidly increasing kno wledge and understanding of the brain possessed by the medical profession,it wou ld perhaps be unwise to forecast undue restrictions on the nature of the ultimat e achievement

60、Evaporation from the soil and transpiration from vegetation are responsibl e for the direct return to the atmosphere of more than half the water which falls on the land

61、It was during the Second World War and the following years that a widespre a d understanding finally emerged of the fundamental role of science for industria l development of both civil and military applications

62、According to the official definition,the term plastics applies to a large an d varied group of materials which consist of,or contain as an essential ingredie n t,a substance of high molecular weight which,while solid in the finished state,a t some stage of its manufacture is soft enough to be formed into various shapes -most usually through the application either singly o r together of heat and pressure

63、The entry not only of chemistry but to an increasing degree also of physic s into chemical industry has here led to a radical break with the dirty,backward chemical industry of the early nineteenth century

64、Two of the great civilizations of ancient times emerged in the Middle East almost simultaneously in Mesopotamia,the land region lying between the Tigris an d Euphrates rivers,and in ?Egypt?,along the Nile River valley,where records sh ow a united kingdom existing as early as 3100 B? C

65、A third distinction(between pure science and technology)is the restriction in technology of the field of interest;many phenomena of great scientific intere st are useless to technology and are ignored by it-ec lipses,for example,and earthquakes

66、The scope of the book is such that it should provide a solid foundation fo r those who intend to select optics as a career and at the same time it should fur nish an adequate knowledge of the subject in a comprehensible form for those who intend to specialize in other branches of physics or engineering

67、Taking man's civilized past at about to seven or eight hours,w e may estimate his future,that is to say,the whole period between how and when the sun grows t oo cold to maintain life any longer on the earth,at about one hundred thousand y ears

68、In very early times man must have had much valuable information regarding th e physical results of various actions and processes but it was only when attempt s were made to systematize and arrange this knowledge and to seek the relations between the different facts that the science of physics began

69、Whether it is cheaper to ship coal from the mine into a city and generate el ectric energy in the city,or to generate electric energy at a coal mine or a rem ote water power site and“step it up”to high voltage and transmit the energy to the city in the form of electric energy is usually a question of economy

70、A sound made by tapping on the hull of a ship will be reflected from the sea bottom,and by measuring the time interval between the taps and the receipt of t he echoes the depth of the sea at that point can be calculated? So was born the echo?sounding apparatus,now in general use in ships

71、It is significant that despite the rapid advance of science since the seve nt eenth century,it made no impact on the problems of prediction until the advent o f the computer,and it is only thinks to the powerful new computers that worthw hile prediction in human affairs has been possible at all

72、Thus,in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consum ers,coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals fo maximize their incomes,that together determine what shall be pro duced and how resources are used to produce it.

73、The progress of science depends upon many factors,and not least among thes e is the existence of satisfactory arrangements for the rapid exchange of new idea s and experimental results between research workers having similar interests

74、Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry techn ique to clone humans,he ordered that federal Funds not be used for such an exper iment although no one had proposed to do so?and asked on independent panel o f experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back fo the Wh i te House in go days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning.

75、Not until we have detailed studies of the present movement of traffic and ha ve a clearer idea of how many people wish to travel,where they want to go,at wha t time of day and how quickly-not until then can we b egin to plan a proper transport system for the future

76、And while today it is true that people do not fight and each other in the street—while,that is to say,we have got to the stage of keeping the rules a nd bhaving properly to each other in daily life—nations and countries have not learnt to do this yet,and still behave like savages

77、The story of the discovery of what is now generally called the principle o f A rchimedes,namely that a solid body when immersed in a liquid loses a portion of its weight of the liquid it displaces,has many different versions,of which the f ollowing is one

78、The development of rockets has made possible the achievement of speeds of se veral thousand miles per hour;and what is more important it has brought within r each of these rockets heights far beyond those which can be reached by aeroplane s,and where there is little or no air resistance,and so it is much easier both t o obtain and to maintain such speed?

79、As the century developed,the increasing magnitude and complexity of the pr ob lems to be solved and the growing interconnection of different disciplines made it impossible,in many cases,for the individual scientist to deal with the huge m ass of new data,technique and equipment that were required for carrying out rese arch accurately and efficiently?

80、Ecology is not even primarily about man;indeed it covers all living organi sm s,and although most people will undoubtedly be interested in the implications of ecology for human life and welfare,to understand the subject it is necessary to abandon an entirely man?oriented approach and to consider instead the inter?relationships of all life and the environment

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